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  • 의성콜걸╗24시출장샵ν의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성석계역 안마방>┘【의성마산 모텔 추천】↞의성자궁 마사지╛의성출장 만남 대행✄의성신설동 안마방╩의성구의 마사지◥의성여대생 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    구미출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    의성콜걸ケ출장부르는법✌의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성폰섹 녹음>↡【의성y존 마사지】☳의성천안 퇴폐⇃의성말레이시아 마사지┛의성부천 안마방◙의성이동국 안마방╥의성장유 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 속초안마방 다녀온 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    의성콜걸➴24시출장샵↷의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성조건 만남 카톡>☣【의성출장 타이마사지】↣의성유부녀 마사지■의성서울 출장●의성안마방 영상◄의성눈 마사지▄의성서현역 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    의성콜걸α24시출장샵♥의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성셀프 마사지>▤【의성강남 타이마사지】┷의성하복대 안마방♫의성출장서비스☁의성안마방 nf 뜻⊥의성김포 타이 마사지¤의성마사지 단속

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    의성콜걸⊙예약イ의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성일본인 안마방>⇞【의성안구 마사지】★의성마사지 알바⇪의성조건 출장╓의성레즈 안마방⇤의성정자 안마방♖의성노량진 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 안양안마방 태국녀 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    의성콜걸ス24시출장샵☰의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성당진 마사지>§【의성단발 안마방】➵의성여관 비용✆의성목동 마사지レ의성부천 안마방↮의성대전 모텔 추천↮의성안양1번가 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    의성콜걸의성전립선 마사지 tumblr

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    의성콜걸╳예약╓의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성독산동 마사지>╃【의성안마방 아영이】☝의성송도 안마방┐의성여성전용 마사지 구인▐의성서울 조건 카톡☜의성출장만남➛의성을지로 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 정읍주안 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    포항출장안마
    서산얼굴 림프 마사지 mycamp.xyz 장흥안마방 항문
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 울산출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    의성콜걸░출장부르는법╍의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성안마방 안마>♐【의성목동 안마방】♪ 의성사북 마사지☪의성게이 안마방↬의성포천 안마방♨의성춘천 모텔 가격♠의성중국식 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 의정부강남 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    의성콜걸☈24시출장샵☢의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성동인천 마사지>✘【의성수안보 마사지】➷의성동인천 마사지┗의성모텔 다방 가격┕의성대구 콜✖의성아가씨 출장┉의성지압 나무위키

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the gogotown.xyz .

    마산캄보디아 마사지
    안양광주 터미널 근처 모텔 군산출장안마 인제출장서비스보장
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    의성콜걸▒출장부르는법☽의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성안마방 교복>→【의성서울역 안마방】┇의성안마방 텀블러▶의성영종도 마사지✕의성안마방 초이스 torrent┣의성동탄 안마방▦의성모텔 전화

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 수원출장안마 .

    의성콜걸♠예약금없는출장샵█의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성민락동 마사지>☢【의성방콕 마사지 비용】╫의성사당 마사지◦의성안마방 섹스☏의성신촌 안마방✏의성태국 마사지 종류.의성콜걸

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And cpod.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 장성군산 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    의성콜걸♥24시출장샵✙의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성안마방 벌금>✔【의성출장전화번호】⇊의성서울대입구 마사지✓의성안마방 경찰✘의성한대앞 마사지☺의성태평역 안마방☇의성두정동 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    의성콜걸┺출장부르는법レ의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성수내 마사지>┕【의성전립선 마사지 야동】┩의성잠실 안마방♦의성목 마사지▲의성안마방 어디까지➴의성카톡ソ의성천안 출장 만남

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 영광모텔 tumblr , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 전주출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 진안안마방 초이스.mp4 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 진주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    의성콜걸◕예약금없는출장샵コ의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성검단 마사지>╬ 【의성생리통 마사지】♥의성안마방 러시아↯의성fc 마사지┠의성국 안마방 초이스♣의성태국 마사지 야동╣의성암사동 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 천안출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and anma4you.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    의성콜걸ム예약금없는출장샵┲의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성칭다오 마사지>➳【의성마사지 토렌트】↾의성중국 대딸╔의성여성전용 안마방┸의성경마 예상 지존 대회↛의성마사지 야설↾의성계산동 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    창원마사지 배우기
    천안출장샵 의왕선입금 출장 대구출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    의성콜걸▩24시출장샵♣의성제주시 연동 마사지<의성프라하 마사지>◘【의성양구 안마방】◎의성낙성대 안마방☜의성수원 마사지ケ의성pornhub 안마방╒의성얼굴 림프 마사지◊의성호치민 호텔 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.의성콜걸의성서면 안마방◑의성연산동 마사지◦【의성안마방 실사】의성안마방 야동♘의성산호동 마사지➼의성이반 마사지╳의성안마방 텀블러シ온라인카지노24시출장샵의성출장몸매최고χ의성서울샵★『의성낙성대 안마방』의성아비게일 마사지◐의성귀두 마사지⇔의성전효성 마사지☶의성서산 마사지┅의성콜걸천안여관 콜의성대전 마사지╬ 의성안산 줄리엣 마사지ア【의성하당 마사지】의성로미 마사지◐의성진주 오피✍의성의정부 여관ム의성구미 모텔 추천➴의성이동국 안마방⇉의성춘천 마사지 후기↣(의성휘성 안마방)의성노모 마사지⇛의성동대구 여관♬의성코스프레 안마방↣의성출장대행┇의성출장시▤의성산본 마사지↪﹛의성제천 마사지﹜의성서울 조건 카톡↺의성강남 안마방♠의성오피▨의성대화역 마사지♪ 의성부산 서면 안마방♐의성거제도 여관➷﹛의성안마방 경험﹜의성천안 조건✁의성동대구역 근처 모텔♪ 의성계룡시 안마방❉의성석계역 안마방ヒ예약금없는출장샵경산남자 안마방출장부르는법의성신림역 안마방◆의성울산 안마방☰(의성동두천 안마방)의성일본 마사지✡의성실제 안마방☍의성춘천 마사지♂의성안마방 누드➶의성콜걸의성콜걸천안출장샵의성안마방 번호의성일산 안마방 가격의성안마방 cctv의성서울 출장안마의성콜걸의성출장업소的의성대구 안마방♧【의성안마방 짜파게티】의성호텔 마사지◦의성안마방 사귄↙의성여주 안마방♤의성만남 카톡ω의령노량진 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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